The text that sits at the center of Doctor Strange's plot is the Book of Cagliostro, an important book from the pages of Marvel comics. In the source material, it accounts mystic Cagliostro's personal history.
Mads Mikkelsen's Kaecilius is in fact a character from the pages of Doctor Strange comics, though he was more of secondary villain than a main antagonist as he is in the movie.
In the pages of Marvel Comics, Christine Palmer was one of the Night Nurses, medical practitioners that specializes in stitching up superheroes.
Michael Stuhlbarg stars as Dr. Nicodemus West, a character who was a colleague of Strange's in Marvel Comics and who also attempted some magical training alongside Stephen.
Notice the date on the watch. Tuesday, February 2nd, 2016. Groundhog Day. Funny considering the climax of the film.
The scene where Strange attempts to write his name is lifted directly from the Doctor Strange mini-series written by J. Michael Straczynski and Samm Barnes.
Though an ally to Strange in the film, Karl Mordo is one of Strange's primary antagonists, more commonly known as Baron Mordo.
Topo Wresniwiro plays Master Hamir in the film, a character who actually hails from the pages of Marvel comics.
One of the Dimensions that Strange finds himself in is directly out of this splash page from artist Steve Ditko.
After training for some time, Strange finally shaves down to his classic goatee look.
The staff itself isn't directly from the comics but the Living Tribunal is a cosmic character that safeguards the entire multiverse from mystical forces.
Another object, which actually does appear in Marvel Comics, is the Wand of Watoomb, whose abilities can basically do anything.
Valtorr is a mystical deity from the pages of Marvel Comics.
The Eye of Agamotto isn't the Time Stone in Marvel Comics but is probably one of the most important artifacts in Strange's arsenal....
...except for the Cloak of Leviation, which Strange wears all the time in the comic books.
Strange appearing in his astral form as Christine operates on him is lifted directly from Doctor Strange: The Oath.
Stan Lee cameos as a bus rider who happens to be reading Aldous Huxley's The Doors of Perception, his book that retells his experiences taking the hallucinogenic drug mescaline.
As New York bends in on itself, Avenger Tower can be seen briefly in the background.
Seen briefly in the background of the film is The Staff of One, the mystical artifact weilded by Nico Minoru of The Runaways. This was before The Runaways had their own TV series, and where they revealed The Staff of One in the series wasn't magical at all.
A long-time villain of Doctor Strange, but the main Easter Egg here is that Cumberbatch himself provided the voice and motion capture for the villain.
In the mid-credit scene from the film, lifted directly from Thor: Ragnarok, Doctor Strange finally wears his trademark gloves.
The post-credits scene sets up a sequel to the film, as Mordo declares there are too many sorcerers. Though not a direct adaptation of the story, this line has roots in the "Last Days of Magic" storyline where a race of Magic-hating deities vowed to rid the entire universe of magic users and magical objects.